Modern Day Agriculture

Traditional Agriculture

A. Soil



a. Preparation

- Deep tillage

- Shallow tillage


- Removal of all shrubs and trees

- Tolerance of selected shrubs and trees


- Leveling

- Shape of plots not important


- Boundaries with straight lines and right angles


b. Improvement of soil quality

- Drainage



- Anti-erosion measures



- Addition of limestone etc.


B. Crops

-Improving the quality of plant material  through breeding for

  1. High yields
  2. Adjustment to climate and soil conditions
  3. Nutritive value
  4. Resistance to diseases and pests
  5. Taste, etc. introduction of new crops

-Careful selection of planting material

C. Crop husbandry

- Single cropping

- Mixed cropping


- Planting/sowing

- Phased planting


- Exact planting distances

- Planting at random on a given area lines


- Clean weeding (use of chemicals)

- No exact planting distances


- Chemical plant protection (pesticides, insecticides)

- Some weed tolerance, weeds



- Plant protection assured

D. Source of power

- Fuel-powered motors, electricity

- Man, draught animals

E. Tools and Implements

- Sophisticated engine-powered machinery

- Specialized hand tools, animal