Introduction
Livestock are domesticated animals raised to produce milk, meat, eggs, wool, labor, etc. Livestock farming is used for encouraging and pulling people into cultivation, and the dung of animals is used to enrich the soil fertility. In the hills and the mountains, yaks, donkey, mules, sheep and goats are used to transport goods. In the Terai, bullocks and buffalo bulls pull carts. Livestock farming is also an important source of protein through the consumption of milk, milk products, eggs, meat, etc. It also acts as important source of cash income for farmers.
Livestock farming is an important agricultural sub-sector in Nepal. According to the data from Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) 2011, livestock covers approximately about 32 percent of agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and about 11.5 percent of total country GDP. Numerous people are involved in the production, slaughtering, processing, and trading of livestock and livestock products. More than 2 million households own cattle, and over 1.4 million households raise chickens.
The growth rate of livestock is less than that of fishery and cash crop, but the contribution of livestock farming in the overall agricultural GDP is more than fishery and cash crops agriculture. According to Ministry of Agriculture Development (MOAC) statistics (2011/12), the overall growth rate of livestock is around 5.3 percent per annum. The growth rate of buffalo, pigs, milking buffalo, and fowl was very good compared to cattle, sheep, duck, laying duck.

Livestock

A. Cattle
Cattle are the main source of animal traction and manure in Nepal. In terms of animal mass units, it is the largest livestock in Nepal. But the annual growth rate is very minimal (almost zero) compared to other livestock farming.
According to MOAC statistics (2011/12),
The livestock population of cattle was about 7244944 with the annual growth rate of 0.42 percent during 2011/12
 
B. Buffalo
Buffalo is the main source of milk and meat in Nepal. Also it is useful as manure and draft power for soil fertility. It is the second largest group of livestock in terms of animal mass units in Nepal. But from the economic point of view, it is more valuable than cattle in Nepal.
According to MOAC statistics (2011/12),
There were about 5133139 buffalo in Nepal during 2011/12. And the annual growth was 3.36 percent per annum
Also the production of buffalo milk was around 1153838 metric tons with the healthy annual growth rate of 3.8 percent during 2011/12
Also the production of meat was around 172414 metric tons with 3.2 percent annual growth during 2011/12
 
C. Milking Cow
Cow is just used for the production of milk in Nepal. As cow is our national animal, it is not used as meat production livestock in Nepal.
According to MOAC statistics (2011/12),
During 2011/12, the population of milking cow was about 998960 with the annual growth rate of 1.8 percent
The production of cow milk was about 468913 metric tons with the annual growth rate of 3 percent during 2011/12
 
D. Sheep and wool
The consumption of mutton in favor of other meat products declined the annual growth rate for sheep to negative value
According to MOAC statistics (2011/12),
There were about 807267 sheep in Nepal during 2011/12. And the annual growth was – 0.25 percent per annum
Also, the meat production was around 2720 metric tons with the negative growth annual growth rate of -2.58 percent during 2011/12
According to MOAC statistics (2011/12),around 587017 metric tons of wool was produced during 2011/12 which was less than before a decade. It has a negative growth rate of -0.2 percent per annum.
 
E. Goat
Primarily goat is the second most popular source of meat in Nepal. It produces milk too but the goat milk has not gained its popularity
According to MOAC statistics (2011/12),
There were about 9512958 goats during 2011/12 in Nepal. The annual growth was 4 percent per annum which was very healthy compared to other livestock
During 2011/12, around 53956 metric tons of meat was produced with the growth rate of 3.6 percent per annum
 
F. Pigs
It is also a major livestock in Nepal. It is done for the purpose of meat production in Nepal.
According to MOAC statistics (2011/12),
The population of pigs was just one-eighth that of goat which was around 1137489 during 2011/12. And the annual growth rate was 2.2 percent per annum.
The total production of pig meat was around 18277 metric tons during 2011/12 with the annual growth rate of 1.7 percent per annum.
 
G. Chicken
It is the third most popular source of meat in Nepal. It has gained the popularity due to its economical cost and the positive influence to health comparing with other meat products.
According to MOAC statistics (2011/12),
During 2011/12, around 45171185 were the population of fowl (generally chicken) with the healthy growth rate of 10.3 percent per annum.
The total population of laying hen was around 7907468 during 2011/12 with the annual growth rate of around 2 percent.
The total production of chicken meat was around 40346 metric tons during 2011/12. It may be the third in meat production but the growth rate is very high compared to other meat source. It’s annual growth rate is 17.3 percent.
And the egg production was around 788310000 during 2011/12 with very high growth rate of 4.6 per annum.
 
H. Duck
It is also a source of meat in Nepal but slowly losing its popularity compared to other meat sources.
According to MOAC statistics (2011/12),
The total population of duck was about 376916 during 2011/12. But the population is decreasing day by day. It has negative growth rate of -0.8 percent per annum.
The total production of chicken meat was only around 217 metric tons during 2011/12 which is much lesser than a decade ago. The annual growth is decreasing at a rate of -2 percent.
The total population of laying duck was around 174978 during 2011/12 with negative growth of -1.8 per annum.
Around 13060000 eggs were produced during 2011/12 with negative growth rate of -1.65 per annum.