Agricultural productivity:
It is measured as ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs. Generally, output is measured as the market value of final output and the inputs may be labor and land. These are called partial measures of productivity. Agricultural productivity may also be measured in terms of total factor productivity (TFP). This method compares an index of agricultural inputs to an index of outputs. This measure of agricultural productivity was established to remedy the shortcomings of the partial measures of productivity; notably that it is often difficult to identify the factors that cause them to change. Changes in TFP are usually attributed to technological improvements.

There are different factors which cause agricultural productivity to increase or decrease. Some factors are:

Weather
It is not in control of the farmer. Unusual weather patterns, such as drought, prolonged rainy season, early or late frosts, and other factors, can ruin crops and bring productivity down.
Pest
It helps to increase the production of land. It also reduces the cost of production but it also affects the soil producing capacity in the long term.
Fertility of the soil
Soil cannot be forced to produce beyond capacity, although there are methods that can be used to improve production capacity, such as fertilizing it to add nutrients to the soil so that it can support more crops.
Equipment
In regions where access to mechanized farm equipment is low, agricultural productivity can also be low as people handle their crops primarily by hand. This involves a big investment of time, energy, and money, and also limits the total capacity of the land. Likewise, people with access to specialized seeds such as crop hybrids specifically developed to produce more can improve their productivity.
Innovation
Farmers who can develop creative ways to farm smarter, as it were, will experience productivity increases. For this reason, many agricultural companies and nations invest in developing new farming techniques and in researching new approaches to farming. Studying ancient approaches to learn from prior generations can also play a role in agricultural innovation; sometimes the best method is already in use.
The supply and demand in the market
Farmers will adjust their activities to meet the needs of consumers and this can have an impact on agricultural productivity. If the demand of consumer is more, then the farmers will try to produce more by using technical or non-technical methods.
Irrigation
It is the important factor that affects the productivity of farm. If proper irrigation facility is not maintained, then it could decrease the productivity of the farm. If rain water is not sufficient or unavailable, then farmers have to manage the water resource externally for better productivity. Also proper drainage system should be maintained.